Ortega y Gasset exerted influence over the novel as a genre with La deshumanización del arte (1925; The Dehumanization of Art), which analyzed contemporary “depersonalized” (i. Sofía Pérez Casanova de Lutoslawski, a successful early Modernist poet, spent her married life outside Spain. Other important novels are Mariano José de Larra’s El doncel de Don Enrique el doliente (1834; “The Page of King Enrique the Invalid”) and Espronceda’s Sancho Saldaña (1834). In his later works he experimented with Impressionism and Surrealism. His Episodios nacionales (1873–79 and 1898–1912; “National Episodes”) comprise 46 volumes and cover the 70 years from the Napoleonic Wars to Spain’s short-lived First Republic. Calderón contributed to an emerging musical comedy form, the zarzuela ( El jardín de Falerina [1648; “The Garden of Falerina”]), and cultivated many subgenres; his numerous secular plays encompassed both comedy and tragedy. Post-Romantic drama and poetry Realistic drama in Spain produced few masterpieces but established a bourgeois comedy of manners further developed in the 20th century. Authors shared an elitist desire to communicate only with the initiated, so that writings in both styles present considerable interpretive difficulties.
Los intereses creados (1907; The Bonds of Interest), echoing the 16th-century commedia dell’arte, is his most enduring work carmen aub dating list. Ignatius of Loyola, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), and in the later religious writer and poet Luis de León. His later works represent naturalism or reflect turn-of-the-century spiritualism carmen aub dating list. Ruiz’s Trotaconventos became Spanish literature’s first great fictional character. This series initiated Valle’s aesthetic movement away from Modernismo’s quest for beauty, which continued with his violent trilogy (1908–09) on the 19th-century Carlist wars ( seeCarlism). Oriental learning entered Christian Spain with the capture (1085) of Toledo from the Muslims, and the city became a centre of translation from Oriental languages. Ferdinand VII’s anachronistic attempts to restore absolutist monarchy drove many liberals into exile in England and France, both countries then under the sway of Romanticism. 1305; “The Knight Cifar”), based on St.
1640; The Mayor of Zalamea), which rejects social honour’s tyranny, preferring the inner nature of true human worth and dignity. His work sometimes recalls that of Luis Buñuel, Salvador Dalí, or Picasso. The novel acquired new seriousness, and critical, psychological, and philosophical essays gained unprecedented importance. Ramón Pérez de Ayala made the novel a polished art form and a forum for philosophical discussion. Juan Luis Vives, the brothers Juan and Alfonso de Valdés, and others were followers of Erasmus, whose writings circulated in translation from 1536 onward and whose influence appears in the Counter-Reformation figure of St. Tomás de Iriarte—a Neoclassical poet, dramatist, theoretician, and translator—produced successful comedies (e. ..