Ortega y Gasset exerted influence over the novel as a genre with La deshumanizaciÃ³n del arte (1925; The Dehumanization of Art), which analyzed contemporary â€œdepersonalizedâ€ (i. SofÃa PÃ©rez Casanova de Lutoslawski, a successful early Modernist poet, spent her married life outside Spain. Other important novels are Mariano JosÃ© de Larraâ€™s El doncel de Don Enrique el doliente (1834; â€œThe Page of King Enrique the Invalidâ€) and Esproncedaâ€™s Sancho SaldaÃ±a (1834). In his later works he experimented with Impressionism and Surrealism. His Episodios nacionales (1873â€“79 and 1898â€“1912; â€œNational Episodesâ€) comprise 46 volumes and cover the 70 years from the Napoleonic Wars to Spainâ€™s short-lived First Republic. CalderÃ³n contributed to an emerging musical comedy form, the zarzuela ( El jardÃn de Falerina [1648; â€œThe Garden of Falerinaâ€]), and cultivated many subgenres; his numerous secular plays encompassed both comedy and tragedy. Post-Romantic drama and poetry Realistic drama in Spain produced few masterpieces but established a bourgeois comedy of manners further developed in the 20th century. Authors shared an elitist desire to communicate only with the initiated, so that writings in both styles present considerable interpretive difficulties.
Los intereses creados (1907; The Bonds of Interest), echoing the 16th-century commedia dellâ€™arte, is his most enduring work carmen aub dating list. Ignatius of Loyola, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), and in the later religious writer and poet Luis de LeÃ³n. His later works represent naturalism or reflect turn-of-the-century spiritualism carmen aub dating list. Ruizâ€™s Trotaconventos became Spanish literatureâ€™s first great fictional character. This series initiated Valleâ€™s aesthetic movement away from Modernismoâ€™s quest for beauty, which continued with his violent trilogy (1908â€“09) on the 19th-century Carlist wars ( seeCarlism). Oriental learning entered Christian Spain with the capture (1085) of Toledo from the Muslims, and the city became a centre of translation from Oriental languages. Ferdinand VIIâ€™s anachronistic attempts to restore absolutist monarchy drove many liberals into exile in England and France, both countries then under the sway of Romanticism. 1305; â€œThe Knight Cifarâ€), based on St.
1640; The Mayor of Zalamea), which rejects social honourâ€™s tyranny, preferring the inner nature of true human worth and dignity. His work sometimes recalls that of Luis BuÃ±uel, Salvador DalÃ, or Picasso. The novel acquired new seriousness, and critical, psychological, and philosophical essays gained unprecedented importance. RamÃ³n PÃ©rez de Ayala made the novel a polished art form and a forum for philosophical discussion. Juan Luis Vives, the brothers Juan and Alfonso de ValdÃ©s, and others were followers of Erasmus, whose writings circulated in translation from 1536 onward and whose influence appears in the Counter-Reformation figure of St. TomÃ¡s de Iriarteâ€”a Neoclassical poet, dramatist, theoretician, and translatorâ€”produced successful comedies (e. ..